Discography (from ancient Greek δίσκος "disc" and γράφειν "to write"; i.e. recording of records; also discography , discography and discography ) is a list of published sound carriers compiled according to specific criteria, often arranged chronologically .
Like the bibliography in literature , the discographies – which appeared much later – are intended to systematically list the released sound carriers ( singles , long -playing records , EPs , CDs or DVDs ) in order to provide interested parties with a complete overview. In this form they are an important part of an artist 's biography . Sorting criteria can be music title , singer , musician , band , composer , record label or a specific onebe music style .  Scientific - musicologically oriented discographies also contain further information such as the recording studios involved , recording dates, the catalog number of the music label, the list of names of the cast or accompaniment together with the musical instrument played , the matrix number , the takes used in the mix or the playing time in chronological order. It becomes difficult when unreleased recordings, radio and private recordings or even bootlegs are to be recorded. Gordon Stevenson demands this in his essay, which also offers a historical overview of discographies.  People who primarily deal with the creation of discographies are called discographers.
The primary sources of a discography are recordings from recording studios or record labels. Secondary sources are the liner notes . In the recording studio, the entire cast is recorded in a recording sheet .  In addition to the recording date, the recording protocol contains the specific recording period (required for billing the studio costs) as well as the names of the people involved and thus forms the decisive basis for later discographies. This recording protocol is the basis for later musicological evaluations. The first discography appears in the liner notes accompanying the phonogram. Record labels create catalogs of recorded music about their published repertoire, from which discographies can be derived.
Discographies are part of normality in the music industry , especially in the USA and Great Britain . The first discographies were created in 1935 for Charles Delaunay 's jazz .  His first discography appeared in March 1935 under the title "Discographie de Bix et Trumbauer",  was still selective and therefore lacked completeness. Delaunay's book was first published in the USA in 1943.  Around the same time as the first French jazz discography, an "Encyclopedia of Recorded Music" appeared in New York in 1936. [8th]In the second edition of the American edition of Delaunay's work, the author wrote that since 1936 discographic research had become a real science, to which specialists worldwide had devoted themselves.  In 1942 a periodical list was published for the first time in England under the name "Discography". D. Russell Connor, in his 1942 paper What is Discography: Its Goal and Methods?, required that the discographer also include electrical transcriptions , radio recordings , film scores , unreleased material, private recordings of concerts and other performances. The term discography became common worldwide from 1968, when the book "Bibliographies, Subject and National" by Robert L. Collison  was published. Discography techniques were agreed at a meeting of the Association for Recorded Sound Collections on November 17-19, 1971.
Published detailed discographies are still rather a rarity in Germany. The former Deutsche Musikphonothek published a “Deutsche Discographe” from 1964. This was continued from January 1970 by the record catalog published by the German Music Archive of the German Library.  Since June 1973 there has been a mandatory deposit of sheet music and sound carriers to the German Music Archive. A team led by Rainer E. Lotz has been working on a German national discography on a private initiative since 1991to put together. It is divided into cabaret, dance music, German vocal recordings/songs, voice recordings, ethnic recordings and Judaica. However, the compilation is limited to German shellac records with 78 min -1 (i.e. no LPs) in the period between 1890 and 1960.
standards of discography
Internationally, the following scheme of a discography has prevailed in terms of form and content:
Joe Turner With Vann 'Piano Man' Walls' Orchestra Taft Jordan (trumpet), Budd Johnson (alto sax), Freddie Mitchell (tenor sax), Arleem Kareem (baritone sax), Harry Van Walls (piano), Rector Bailey (guitar), Leonard Gaskin (bass), Connie Kay (drums), Joe Turner (vocals) Atlantic Recording Studios, New York City, January 20, 1952 die no. Title label catalogue 786 I'll Never Stop Loving You Atlantic 960 786- I'll Never Stop Loving You (alt. Take) Atlantic LP 8033 787 Sweet Sixteen Atlantic 960, EP 536, LP 8005, LP 8081; Atco SD 33-376 788 JT Blues unreleased 789 Don't You Cry Atlantic 970, LP 8033 790 Poor Lover's Blues unreleased
First, the discography contains precise information about the name of the artist, followed by the name of the recording studio and the place and date of the recording session. The matrix number is a recording studio's ordinal number under which the master (or mother) tape containing the final mixdown of a piece of music is registered. This is followed by the title of the piece of music and the catalog number under which the record label released the title. The example shows that "Atlantic 960" appears twice, so there are two titles that must have been released on a single. The single Sweet Sixteen / I'll Never Stop Loving Youactually appeared in March 1952, barely two months after the recording session. Some titles have only been released on EP or LP, while the JT Blues and the Poor Lover's Blues have remained unreleased.
tasks and goals
Discographies largely fulfill the information needs of collectors and the interests of the music industry, for which they are a by-product of phonograms and catalogues. Discographies organize the musicological data and record the sound recording production as completely as possible. They can be created independently of the musical style, so it doesn't matter if it's a recording of Gustav Mahler's First Symphony by Eugene Ormandy & The Philadelphia Orchestra or the West End Blues by Louis Armstrong and his Hot Five. Discographies are an indispensable tool in studying the development of pop music and jazz and an important basis for the collector's decision-making.
Discographies according to different criteria
With regard to the musical style , discographies in book form can be distinguished:
- There are opera discographies by Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau  or Karsten Steiger, for example. 
- There is a classic compilation in the blues  which was extended in 1971 to cover the period 1943–1970.
- Tony Russell chronicled over 20 years of country music evolution. 
- Numerous discographic publications have appeared in jazz . Brian Rust was a famous British discographer who notably published the standard work Jazz Records 1897-1942 with over 32,000 jazz recordings since 1961. A good discography for the German market is offered by Manfred Scheffner 's Bielefeld catalogue , which can also be accessed free of charge on the Internet. Tom Lord has presented the most extensive discography for this genre .
- The recorded pieces of music can also be sorted by artist . For example, there are numerous discographies of Johnny Cash  with an extension of an index of all recording sessions from 1954 to 1993. Fred Waring's discography lists all recordings of this dance orchestra . 
- In the record label realm, the history of Okeh Records has been painstakingly pieced together.  One of the most important cross-style discographers is Michael Ruppli , who has published discographies on MGM Records  and Mercury Records  , among others .
A large number of discographies are available on the Internet, for example via Muddy Waters ,  by British band leader Jack Hylton  or via the record label Sun Records and its artists. 
For the methodology of discography in the field of classical music, see Martin Elste : Evaluating discographies of classical music. In: Phonographic bulletin. No.54 (July 1989), pp. 64-77.
- All Music Guide
- "A community-built database of music information "
- GPL-licensed CD database (English)
- Music database under free license (English)
- Discographies of well-known artists - based on musicbrainz (German & English)
- Act/artist, producer, month/year, genre and label discography (German)
- Discographies of well-known bands and artists and the resulting cross-connections (German and English)
- ↑ Wieland Ziegenrücker/ Peter Wicke , Sachlexikon Popularmusik , 1987, p. 105
- ↑ Horst Zander, PC-supported restoration of audio signals , 2009, p. 24.
- ↑ Gordon Stevenson, Discography: Scientific, Analytical, Historical and Systematic , July 1972, pp. 101 ff.
- ↑ Sample Studio Track Sheet ( Memento of September 27, 2011 at the Internet Archive ).
- ↑ Charles Delaunay, Hot Discography , in: Hot Jazz , Paris 1936, p. 271 ff.
- ↑ Hot Jazz 1, March 1935 issue, p. 21; meant were Bix Beiderbecke and Frank Trumbauer
- ↑ Gordon Stevenson, Discography: Scientific, Analytical, Historical and Systematic , July 1972, p. 101
- ↑ Robert D. Darrell comp, The Gramophone Shop, Encyclopedia of Recorded Music , New York, The Gramophone Shop, 1936
- ↑ Charles Delaunay, New Hot Discography , Walter E. Schaap /George Avakian (eds.), 1948, p. ix: "Since 1936, discographical study has become a veritable science to which numbers of specialists throughout the world have devoted themselves."
- ↑ D. Russell Connor, in: Studies in Jazz Discography I, 1942 p. 3
- ↑ Lockwood, 1968, pp. 189, 191
- ↑ Severin Corsten / Bernhard Bischoff, A-Book: Lexicon of the entire book system , 1987, p. 324
- ↑ Gordon Stevenson, Discography: Scientific, Analytical, Historical and Systematic , July 1972, p. 108
- ↑ Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, Discography , 2005
- ↑ Karsten Steiger, Opera Discography , 2008, De Gruyter
- ↑ Mike Leadbitter/Neil Slaven, Blues Records: A Complete Guide To 20 Years of Recorded Blues 1943–1966 , May 1968.
- ↑ Tony Russell, Country Music Records: A Discography 1921-1942 , 2004.
- ↑ John L Smith, Johnny Cash Discography and Recording History (1955–1968) , 1969
- ↑ Peter T. Kiefer, The Fred Waring Discography , 1996.
- ↑ Ross Laird/Brian AL Rust, Discography of OKeh Records: 1918–1934 , 2004.
- ↑ Michael Ruppli/Ed Novitsky, The MGM Labels Discography 1961–1982 , Vol. 2, 1998.
- ↑ Michael Ruppli/Ed Novitsky, The Mercury Label Discography , 1993.
- ↑ Phil Wight, The Complete Muddy Waters Discography (PDF; 968 kB)
- ↑ Jack Hylton Complete Discography , September 2007 (PDF; 486 kB)
- ↑ John Boija, Sun Records